We have also noted that 24-hour urinary estrogens can be a sensitive monitor of liver detoxification capability. Elevated urinary estrogens in normally-cycling women may indicate a history of exposure to liver stresses such as excessive environmental organic chemicals. Interventions intended to improve liver function result in a gradual normalization of the abnormal estrogen levels. Thus, measurement of urinary estrogens can give insight into other aspects of physiology. This phenomenon is also noted in peri- or post-menopausal women who have previously taken Premarin, and have switched to triple-estrogen replacement with less-than-optimal symptom relief.
Not shortly after Roger Maris record was broken, another baseball player, Jason Giambi and various other athletes were either suspected of, or proven to have, taken anabolic steroids. Again, Congress convened a hearing, and just as they did the first time in 1990, they did not determine that steroids were a danger, but rather that the danger was more in protecting professional sports organizations. The updated statute has been updated to proscribe pro-hormones also The definition of an anabolic steroid as defined currently in the United States under (41)(A) is that "anabolic steroid" means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens , progestins, corticosteroids, and dehydroepiandrosterone (7).
The PSA value used most frequently as the highest normal level is 4 ng/mL (nanograms per milliliter). However, since the prostate gland generally increases in size and produces more PSA with increasing age, it is normal to have lower levels in young men and higher levels in older men. Age-specific PSA levels are as follows (age group, upper normal): (40 – 49, ), (50 – 59, ), (60 – 69, ), (70 – 79, ). The use of age-specific PSA ranges for the detection of prostate cancer is controversial. Not all studies have agreed that this is better than simply using a level of 4 ng/mL as the highest normal value.