In a landmark paper, Liggins and Howie showed that a single course of antenatal corticosteroid therapy administered to women at risk for preterm delivery (PTD) reduced the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and mortality in offspring [ 1 ]. Over two dozen randomized trials have confirmed these findings [ 2 ]. Subsequent trials have also shown that antenatal corticosteroid therapy improves circulatory stability in preterm neonates, resulting in lower rates of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and necrotizing enterocolitis compared with unexposed preterm neonates.
The most commonly reported side effects were: oral thrush , nausea , headache , and pain in the pharynx or larynx . More rarely reported side effects (occurring in <1% of patients during the clinical trial) include: tachycardia , palpitations , dry mouth , allergic reaction ( bronchospasm , dermatitis , hives ), pharyngitis , muscle spasms , tremor , dizziness , insomnia , nervousness , and hypertension . Patients experiencing an allergic reaction or increase in difficulty breathing while using this medication should immediately discontinue its use and contact their physician.