Perhaps more importantly, levamisole has been extremely productive in forward genetic screens. In the earliest studies tetramisole was used ( Brenner, 1974 ) and later this was replaced by the more active isomer, levamisole ( Lewis et al., 1980 ). These screens have provided a resource of mutants that have been used over the last two decades to assign function to genes expressed at the neuromuscular junction. Some of these are nACh receptor subunits, but others interestingly are not and serve to either regulate nicotinic receptors or muscle function (see Table 2 ).
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Besides the anthelmintic activity, levamisole also has a stimulating effect on the immune system, and it can be effective against certain tumors. This immunostimulant effect on livestock and pets is not completely elucidated. In any case it is restricted to the restoration of a depressed immune response in weak or recovering animals. But in healthy animals usually it does not increases the immune response against infectious diseases they may suffer. The immune stimulating dose is significantly lower than the anthelmintic dose. Daily treatments repeated over a long period of time can have the opposite . an immunosuppressive effect. Therefore it must be handled carefully for this purpose.