Cross references IPR001199 SSF55856 Protein matches Abstract Cytochromes b5 are ubiquitous electron transport proteins found in animals, plants and yeasts [ 2752049 ]. The microsomal and mitochondrial variants are membrane-bound, while those from erythrocytes and other animal tissues are water-soluble [ 4030743 , 8439576 ]. The 3D structure of bovine cyt b5 is known, the fold belonging to the alpha+beta class, with 5 strands and 5 short helices forming a framework for supporting a central haem group [ 1167544 ]. The cytochrome b5 domain is similar to that of a number of oxidoreductases, such as plant and fungal nitrate reductases, sulphite oxidase, yeast flavocytochrome b2 (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and plant cyt b5/acyl lipid desaturase fusion protein.
Through a multiplex promoter spanning 218 kb, the phase II UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1) gene encodes at least eight differently regulated mRNAs whose protein products function as the principal means to eliminate a vast array of steroids, heme metabolites, environmental toxins, and drugs. The orphan nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) were originally identified as sensors able to respond to numerous environmentally derived foreign compounds (xenobiotics) to promote detoxification by phase I cytochrome P450 genes. In this report, we show that both receptors can induce specific UGT1A isoforms including those involved in estrogen, thyroxin, bilirubin, and carcinogen metabolism. Transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of human PXR show markedly increased UGT activity toward steroid, heme, and carcinogens, enhanced bilirubin clearance, as well as massively increased steroid clearance. The ability of PXR and constitutive androstane receptor and their ligands to transduce both the phase I and phase II adaptive hepatic response defines a unique transcriptional interface that bridges the ingestion and metabolism of environmental compounds to body physiology.