Alen, Reinila, & Reijo (1985) observed that serum testosterone level tended to increase throughout a 26 week cycle of various AAS until abruptly dropping below normal levels during cessation. When athletes discontinue the use of AAS they experience a refractory period where they do not produce physiological amounts of endogenous testosterone (Di Pasquale, 1992a). Anabolic-androgenic steroid can reduce endogenous testosterone, gonadotrophic hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (Yesalis, Wright, & Bahrke, 1989). Weight trained athletes have been shown to have low serum testosterone concentrations immediately after cessation of an AAS cycle but return to normal within weeks (Alen, Reinila, & Reijo, 1985).
Because of the complex and interacting factors, it is, in principle, impossible to know for certain how much insulin (and which type) is needed to 'cover' a particular meal to achieve a reasonable blood glucose level within an hour or two after eating. Non-diabetics' beta cells routinely and automatically manage this by continual glucose level monitoring and insulin release. All such decisions by a diabetic must be based on experience and training (., at the direction of a physician, PA, or in some places a specialist diabetic educator) and, further, specifically based on the individual experience of the patient. But it is not straightforward and should never be done by habit or routine. With some care however, it can be done reasonably well in clinical practice. For example, some patients with diabetes require more insulin after drinking skim milk than they do after taking an equivalent amount of fat, protein, carbohydrate, and fluid in some other form. Their particular reaction to skimmed milk is different from other people with diabetes, but the same amount of whole milk is likely to cause a still different reaction even in that person. Whole milk contains considerable fat while skimmed milk has much less. It is a continual balancing act for all people with diabetes, especially for those taking insulin.
As for individual use of a personal nature, outside therapeutic treatment, this is where we will find the vast majority of anabolic steroids. It is here we will also find the biggest problems, not in terms of ill-effects of a physical or mental nature but of those surrounding legality. In places like the . anabolic steroids are controlled substances, and here we will find the strictest of laws. This has created a new class of criminal; most commonly an adult man with a family who is simply living an every day life like everyone else. These are issues that need to be discussed and you will find very few are willing to touch them unlike .