D-AA And You D-AA is formed when the enzyme aspartate racemase converts an L-Aspartic Acid into D-AA in the testes and glands. It is one of 20 proteinogenic amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. It was discovered in 1827 by Plisson, a French pharmacist, by boiling asparagus and treating it with hydrochloric acid. (Crazy, right?)
The liquid whey is typically 30% protein at this point and can be spray dried to go into the food supply or can be filtered further to remove the remaining carbs and fats. These filtration processes pas the liquid whey through fine membranes that can produce a grade of whey protein that is over 90% protein and almost completely free from fats and carbs. The grades that range from 30% to 80% protein are called whey concentrates and the grades from 90% protein and above are referred to as whey isolates. Whey protein can also be hydrolysed which is a process by which the whey protein is pre-digested by a combination of enzymes which break the whole proteins into smaller fragments called peptide chains. These are digested even more quickly that the whole whey proteins and are becoming popular in supplements designed for specific recovery purposes. Generally speaking, the grades used in sports nutrition products range from the 50% protein whey concentrates up to the 90+% isolates.