The number of players who have admitted using steroids in a confidential survey conducted by the NCAA since the 1980s has dropped from percent in 1989 to percent in 2003.  During the 2003 season, there were over 7,000 drug tests, with just 77 turning up as positive test results.  Scukanec claims that methods were used to get around the drug testing, whether it be avoiding the tests by using the drugs during the off-season, or flushing the drugs out of your system. This was used with a liquid he referred to as the "pink."  He stated:
Study author Henning Bostelmann from the University of York in the United Kingdom explained that the paper, published last week in Physical Review A , is a mathematical result generalizing this backflow effect to any kind of external force that could act on a particle. But, explained Cadamuro, their math only works for particles in one dimension. That’s as if the people in Halliwell’s example could only walk forward or backward. The paper also doesn’t take into account the specific properties of particles aside from their momentum.