Anabolic and androgenic steroids are available as prescription medications to be used in cases in which the body does not make enough hormone and supplementation may be required. Some hormone supplements in this pathway include growth hormone and testosterone itself. These medications are legally prescribed by health-care providers, but this group of drugs is often used illegally and abused to help increase athletic performance and improve body appearance. When used in a well-nourished body, anabolic steroids will cause weight gain primarily due to an increase in muscle mass.
The metabolism of people with diabetes differs to the metabolism of people without it. In type 2 diabetes, the effectiveness of insulin is reduced and in type 1 diabetes , insulin levels in the body are very low. There is a strong correlation between BMI and body fat. One of the correlates of insulin resistance is the blood fatty acid (FA) level. FA levels are strong predictors of muscle insulin resistance. Muscle fat content is increased in obesity and more so in type 2 diabetes. Electron microscopy shows decreased mitochondrial size in muscle from individuals with type 2 diabetes.