- Planted in and about towns throughout the Philippines.
- Native of tropical America.
- Widely cultivated and naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the rest of the world.
- Phytochemical screening yielded carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids, proteins, flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins and glycosides.
- Bixa orellana seeds are the only natural source of bixin, a carotenoid widely used in food industry as colorant.
- Seed contains a fatty oil with palmitin, a little stearin, and phytosterol.
- Study of carotenoid pigments in the seeds identified bixin, norbixin, ß-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin and methyl bixin.
- Aqueous extracts yielded six major compounds viz. 2-butanamine, acetic acid, pentanoic acid (valeric acid), phenol, pantolactone, and benzoic acid. (see study below) ( 32 )
- Phytochemical analysis of seeds showed phenolic compounds and flavonoids to be present in all extracts. The maximum amount of phenolic compounds was found in the aqueous extract with mg of GAE/g of extractive. Isolation of purified bixin was done from the seeds. (see study below) ( 39 )
- Main carotenoids from the seeds are Apo- ψ -carotene, 9′ Z -6′-ol, ß-carotene, bixin, Z-carotene, cryptoxanthin, dimethyl-(9Z)-6,6'-diapocarotene-6,6'-dioate, dimethyl-(9Z,9'Z)-6,6'-diapocarotene-6,6'-dioate, phytoene, phytofluene, geranylgeraniol, lutein, methyl-(9Z)-10'-oxo-6,10'-diapocarotene-6-oate, methyl-(9Z)-6'-oxo-6,5'-diapocarotene-6-oate, methyl-(9Z)-8'-oxo-6,8'-diapocarotene-6-oate, methyl-(9Z)- apo -6,lycopenoate, methyl-(7Z,9Z,9'Z)- apo -6'-lycopenoate, methyl-(9Z)- apo -8'-lycopenoate, methyl-(all-E)- apo -8-lycopenoate, neurosporene, norbixin, Trans-bixin, zeaxanthine.
- Phytochemical screening of leafs yielded alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, phenols, and tannins. (see study below) ( 53 )
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